Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2022
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Summary of Significant Accounting Policies Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
(a)Basis of Presentation
These consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States (“GAAP”) and pursuant to the regulations of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. All intercompany transactions and balances between the various legal entities comprising the Company have been eliminated in consolidation.
(b)Emerging Growth Company
The Company is an “emerging growth company,” as defined in Section 2(a) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), as modified by the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012 (the “JOBS Act”), and it may take advantage of certain exemptions from various reporting requirements that are applicable to other public companies that are not emerging growth companies. Further, Section 102(b)(1) of the JOBS Act exempts emerging growth companies from being required to comply with new or revised financial accounting standards until private companies (that is, those that have not had a Securities Act registration statement
declared effective or do not have a class of securities registered under the Exchange Act) are required to comply with the new or revised financial accounting standards. The JOBS Act provides that a company can elect to opt out of the extended transition period and comply with the requirements that apply to non-emerging growth companies but any such election to opt out is irrevocable. The Company has elected not to opt out of such extended transition period which means that when a standard is issued or revised and it has different application dates for public or private companies, the Company, as an emerging growth company, can adopt the new or revised standard at the time private companies adopt the new or revised standard. This may make comparison of the Company’s financial statements with another public company which is neither an emerging growth company nor an emerging growth which has opted out of using the extended transition period difficult or impossible because of the potential differences in accounting standards used.
(c)Use of Estimates
The preparation of the consolidated financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires the Company to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes. The Company bases these estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions that it believes are reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results may differ materially from these estimates. Significant estimates inherent in the preparation of the consolidated financial statements include, but are not limited to, useful lives of property, plant and equipment, net, leases, income taxes including deferred tax assets and liabilities and impairment valuation, assumptions included in the valuation of the stock-based awards, assumptions included in the valuation of the Company’s common stock, contingencies, warrants, convertible notes, and contract losses for cost estimates-to-complete.
(d)Cash Equivalents
The Company's cash consists of cash on hand. We consider all highly liquid investments with an original maturity of three months or less, when acquired, to be cash equivalents.
(e)Restricted Cash
Restricted cash includes any cash deposits received from customers, that are contractually restricted for operational use until the launch service is provided or the deposits are refunded.
(f)Accounts Receivable
Accounts receivable are recorded at their net realizable value. The Company’s estimate for expected credit losses for outstanding accounts receivable are based on historical write-off experience, an analysis of the aging of outstanding receivables, customer payment patterns, and the establishment of specific reserves for customers in an adverse financial condition. Adjustments are made based upon the Company’s expectations of changes in macroeconomic conditions that may impact the collectability of outstanding receivables. The Company also considers current market conditions and reasonable and supportable forecasts of future economic conditions to inform adjustments to historical loss data. The Company reassesses the adequacy of estimated credit losses each reporting period. There was no allowance for uncollectible amounts and no write-offs as of and for the years ended December 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021. The Company does not have any off-balance sheet credit exposure related to its customers.
Prepayments consist of prepaid rent, prepaid insurance, prepaid medical insurance, prepaid workers compensation and other general supplier prepayments.
Inventories are stated at the lower of cost or net realizable value. The determination of net realizable of long-term contract costs is based upon quarterly contract reviews that determine an estimate of costs to be incurred to complete all contract requirements. When actual contract costs and the estimate to complete exceed total estimated contract revenues, a loss provision will be recorded.
If events or changes in circumstances indicate that the utility of inventory has diminished through damage, deterioration, obsolescence, changes in price or other causes, a loss is recognized in the period in which it occurs. The Company determines the cost of inventory by using the average cost method and consumes inventory on a first-in first-out basis.
(i)Property, Plant and Equipment, Net
Property, plant and equipment, net, including leasehold improvements, are stated at cost, less accumulated depreciation and amortization.
Depreciation on property, plant and equipment is calculated on a straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets. Leasehold improvements are amortized over the shorter period of the estimated useful life or lease term.
The estimated useful lives for each class of property, plant and equipment are as follows:
Leasehold improvements
Shorter of the estimated useful life or lease term
Machinery and equipment
5 to 7 years
15 years
IT software and equipment
3 to 5 years
The Company incurs repairs and maintenance costs on major equipment, which is expensed as incurred. Assets disposed of or retired are removed from cost and accumulated depreciation accounts and any resulting gain or loss is reflected in the Company’s consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss.
The Company determines whether an arrangement contains a lease at inception. A lease is a contract that provides the right to control an identified asset for a period of time in exchange for consideration. For identified leases, the Company determines whether it should be classified as an operating or finance lease.
Leases are recorded in the balance sheet as right-of-use assets (“ROU assets”) and operating and finance lease obligations. ROU assets represent the Company’s right to use the underlying assets for the lease terms and lease obligations represent the Company’s obligations to make lease payments arising from the leases. ROU assets and lease obligations are recognized at the commencement date of the lease and measured based on the present value of lease payments over the lease term. When the discount rate implicit in the lease cannot be readily determined, the Company uses its incremental borrowing rate based on the information available at commencement date in determining the present value of lease payments. The incremental borrowing rate represents the rate of interest the Company would have to pay to borrow on a collateralized basis over a similar term an amount equal to the lease payments in a similar economic environment. Because the Company does not generally borrow on a collateralized basis, the Company used incremental borrowing rates determined by a third-party valuation firm based on market yields for the respective lease terms.
The Company includes options to extend or terminate the lease when it is reasonably certain that it will exercise that option in the measurement of its ROU assets and lease obligations. Lease expense for operating leases is recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term. Amortization of finance lease assets is recognized over the lease term as operating expenses based on the nature of the leased asset. Interest expense on finance lease liabilities is recognized over the lease term in interest expense. The Company elected to exclude from its
balance sheets recognition of leases having a term of 12 months or less after considering renewal terms (“short-term leases”). The Company accounts for lease and non-lease components separately.
(k)Capitalized Software
The Company capitalizes certain costs associated with the development or purchase of internal-use software. The amounts capitalized are included in property, plant and equipment, net on the consolidated balance sheets and are amortized on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful life of the resulting software, which approximates 3 years.
(l)Long-Lived Assets
Long-lived assets consist of property, plant and equipment, net and ROU assets and are reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. If circumstances require a long-lived asset to be tested for possible impairment, the Company first compares undiscounted cash flows expected to be generated by that asset to its carrying amount. The Company assesses impairment for asset groups, which represent a combination of assets that produce distinguishable cash flows. If the carrying amount of the long-lived asset is not recoverable on an undiscounted cash flow basis, an impairment is recognized to the extent that the carrying amount exceeds its fair value. Fair value is determined through various valuation techniques, including discounted cash flow models, quoted market values, and third-party independent appraisals, as considered necessary. There was no impairment of long-lived assets during the years ended December 31, 2022, 2021 and 2020.
Depreciation on property, plant and equipment is calculated on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful lives of the assets. Leasehold improvements are amortized over the shorter period of the estimated useful life or lease term. The Company monitors conditions related to these assets to determine whether events and circumstances warrant a revision to the remaining depreciation period.
(m)Other Non-current Assets
Other non-current assets consist primarily of security deposits related to operating lease facilities.
(n)Comprehensive Loss
Comprehensive loss represents all changes in equity other than transactions with owners. The Company’s comprehensive loss consists of net loss and foreign currency translation adjustments.
The Company recognizes revenue when control of the promised goods and services is transferred to our customers in an amount that reflects the consideration it expects to be entitled to in exchange for those services. The Company’s launch related service revenue contracts have been fixed-price contracts. To the extent actual costs vary from the cost upon which the price was negotiated, the Company will generate variable levels of profit or could incur a loss.
For promised goods, revenue is recognized net of any taxes collected from customers, which are subsequently remitted to governmental authorities.
Launch Related Services
Small-satellite launch operations revenue is recognized for providing customer launch services. The Company’s launch service contracts generally consisting of multiple launches with each launch being allocated a fixed price and identified as distinct performance obligations. Revenue for each launch service is recognized at a point in time when the performance obligation is complete, which is typically at the point of launch. When the Company determines it is probable that costs to provide the services stipulated by the launch services agreement will exceed the allocated fixed price for each launch, the Company records a provision for the contract loss. Contract losses are recorded at the contract level and are recognized when known. To the extent
the contract loss provision is less than the accumulated costs to fulfill the contracts, the Company records the provision net of inventory and net of contract assets in the consolidated balance sheets. Launch service revenue was $32.7 million, $6.0 million and $0 for the years ended December 31, 2022, 2021 and 2020, respectively.
Engineering Services
Engineering services revenue contracts obligate the Company to provide primarily research and studies services that together are one distinct performance obligation; the delivery of engineering services. The Company elected to apply the “as-invoiced” practical expedient to such revenues, and as a result, will bypass estimating the variable transaction price. Revenue is recognized as control of the performance obligation is transferred over time to the customer. Engineering services revenue were $0.4 million, $1.4 million and $2.0 million for the years ended December 31, 2022, 2021 and 2020, respectively.
Contract Balances
Contract assets are comprised of billed accounts receivable and unbilled receivables, which is the result of timing of revenue recognition, billings and cash collections. Amounts are generally billed as work progresses in accordance with agreed-upon milestones. The Company records accounts receivable when it has an unconditional right to consideration. Contract assets are classified as current if the invoice will be delivered to the customer within the succeeding 12-month period with the remaining recorded as long-term.
In addition, the Company evaluates whether or not it should capitalize the costs of fulfilling a contract. Such costs would be capitalized when they are not within the scope of other standards and: (1) are directly related to a contract; (2) generate or enhance resources that will be used to satisfy performance obligations; and (3) are expected to be recovered.
The Company began capitalizing contract costs associated with specific launch services contracts with customers as the Company determined technological feasibility was reached upon the Company’s successful demo launch in January 2021. As of December 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021, the Company recorded $0.5 million and $3.1 million respectively, of contract assets in the consolidated balance sheets.
The Company has not incurred incremental costs for obtaining our contracts with customers.
Contract liabilities primarily relate to small-satellite launch operations and are recorded when cash payments are received or due in advance of performance. Cash payments for small-satellite launch services are classified as customer deposits until enforceable rights and obligations exist, when such deposits also become non-refundable. Customer deposits become non-refundable and are recorded as non-current deferred revenue following the Company’s delivery of the conditions of carriage to the customer and execution of an informed consent. Non-current deferred revenue was $14.2 million and $29.0 million as of December 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021, respectively. Current deferred revenue was $20.4 million and $12.2 million as of December 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021, respectively.
Payment terms vary by customer and type of revenue contract. The Company generally expects that the period of time between payment and transfer of promised goods or services will be less than one year. In such instances, the Company has elected the practical expedient to not evaluate whether a significant financing component exists.
These individual contract assets and liabilities are reported in a net position on a contract-by-contract basis on the consolidated balance sheets at the end of each reporting period.
Remaining Performance Obligations
Remaining performance obligations are committed and represent non-cancellable contracted revenue that has not yet been recognized and will be recognized as revenue in future periods. Some contracts allow customers to cancel the contracts without a significant penalty if the Company’s launches are delayed beyond a specified
period or if the Company does not achieve certain milestones, and the cancellable amount of contract value is not included in the remaining performance obligations.
As of December 31, 2022, the Company has multiple launch and engineering service revenue contracts for which it expects to transfer all remaining performance obligations to the customer by the fiscal year ending December 31, 2027. The Company does not disclose information about remaining performance obligations for (a) contracts with an original expected length of one year or less, (b) revenues recognized at the amount at which it has the right to invoice for services performed, or (c) variable consideration allocated to wholly unsatisfied performance obligations.
(p)Cost of Revenue
Cost of revenue related to launch services and engineering services consists of expenses related to materials and human capital, such as payroll and benefits. As the Company determined technological feasibility was reached upon the Company’s successful demo launch in January 2021, the Company began capitalizing costs for the production of the Company’s rockets, and has subsequently charged to cost of revenue the cost for rocket manufacturing including materials, labor and related mission launch costs including fuel, payroll and benefits for our launch and flight operations as well as the depreciation of the Company’s uniquely portable and reusable launch stage, Cosmic Girl (“Cosmic Girl”), facilities and equipment and other allocated overhead expenses. The costs of revenue were $85.7 million, $37.9 million and $3.2 million for the years ended December 31, 2022, 2021 and 2020, respectively.
(q)Selling, General and Administrative
Selling, general and administrative expenses consist of personnel-related expenses related to general corporate functions, primarily including executive management and administration, finance and accounting, legal, business development, and government affairs, as well as certain allocated costs. Personnel-related expenses primarily include salaries and benefits. Allocated costs include costs related to information technology, facilities, human resources and safety. Personnel-related expenses also include allocated sustaining activities relating to launch operations and production processes support, including required launch system maintenance, updates and documentation.
(r)Research and Development
We conduct research and development activities to develop existing and future technologies that advance our satellite launch and space solution offerings. Research and development activities include basic research, applied research, concept formulation studies, design, development and related test program activities. Costs incurred to develop our LauncherOne rockets primarily include equipment, material, labor and overhead. Costs incurred for performing test flights primarily include labor and fuel expenses for launch and flight operations. Research and development costs also include rent, maintenance, and depreciation of facilities and equipment and other allocated overhead expenses. We plan to continue to make substantial investments in research and development for the continued enhancements of LauncherOne and the development of a third stage modified LauncherOne for additional services. As LauncherOne achieved technical feasibility in January 2021, we began capitalizing the production costs of our LauncherOne rockets. The Company expensed all research and development costs as incurred of $43.3 million and $48.1 million for the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively.
(s)Other Income
Other income consists of sources of income that are not related to our primary operations, including miscellaneous non-operating items, such as income recognized from non-ordinary course of business activities.
Investments in which the Company has no significant influence (generally less than a 20% ownership interest) or does not have the ability to exercise significant influence are accounted as financial assets. Equity securities
with readily determinable fair market value are accounted for at fair value based on quoted market prices. Equity securities without readily determinable fair values are accounted for either at fair value or using the measurement alternative which is at cost minus impairment, if any, plus or minus changes resulting from observable price changes in orderly transactions for the identical or a similar investment of the same issuer. All gains and losses on investments in equity securities are included in change in fair value of equity investments in the consolidated statement of operations and comprehensive loss. Refer to Note 16. Investments in Noncontrolled Entity.
(u)Fair value of Financial Instruments
Fair value is defined as the price that would be received for sale of an asset or paid for transfer of a liability, in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. U.S. GAAP establishes a three-tier fair value hierarchy, which prioritizes the inputs used in measuring fair value. The hierarchy gives the highest priority to unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities (Level 1 measurements) and the lowest priority to unobservable inputs (Level 3 measurements). These tiers consist of:
Level 1, defined as observable inputs such as quoted prices (unadjusted) for identical instruments in active markets;
Level 2, defined as inputs other than quoted prices in active markets that are either directly or indirectly observable such as quoted prices for similar instruments in active markets or quoted prices for identical or similar instruments in markets that are not active; and
Level 3, defined as unobservable inputs in which little or no market data exists, therefore requiring an entity to develop its own assumptions, such as valuations derived from valuation techniques in which one or more significant inputs or significant value drivers are unobservable.
In some circumstances, the inputs used to measure fair value might be categorized within different levels of the fair value hierarchy. In those instances, the fair value measurement is categorized in its entirety in the fair value hierarchy based on the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement.
(v)Warrant Liability
The Company accounts for the warrants assumed in connection with the Business Combination in accordance with the guidance contained in ASC 815-40, Derivatives and Hedging—Contracts in Entity’s Own Equity, under which the warrants do not meet the criteria for equity treatment and must be recorded as liabilities. Accordingly, the Company classifies the warrants as liabilities at their fair value and adjust the warrants to fair value at each reporting period. This liability is subject to remeasurement at each balance sheet date until exercised, and any change in fair value is recognized in the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss.
(w)Convertible Notes
The Company elected to early adopt Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2020-06, Debt—Debt with Conversion and Other Options (Subtopic 470-20) and Derivatives and Hedging—Contracts in Entity’s Own Equity (Subtopic 815-40): Accounting for Convertible instruments and Contracts in an Entity’s Own Equity (“ASU 2020-06”). The Company has elected to apply the fair value option to the Convertible Notes on the date that the Company first recognizes each of the Convertible Notes on June 29, 2022, November 4, 2022 and December 19, 2022. The Company acknowledges that its election to apply the fair value option is irrevocable. The Company recognized costs incurred upon issuance of the Convertible Notes as an expense in its consolidated income statement for the twelve months ended December 31, 2022. The Convertible Notes will be classified and presented as a long-term liability on the Consolidated Balance Sheet as of December 31, 2022. Changes in fair value will be recorded in the statements of operations and changes in fair value related to credit risk will be recorded in other comprehensive loss.